The Art & Science of Audio & Video

Inverse Square Law

The inverse square law is probably one of the most widely used fundamental of physics used in the field of audio. As you advance through your career you will continue to use this particular formulation on an increasingly frequent basis. You will use it at the very beginning of your system designs when trying to determine what speakers to select and what amplifiers will be required to power them. It can also be used to assist in the setting of delays speakers and much more. It will be a very valuable tool to have in your audio knowledge toolbox. Simply stated the definition of the inverse square law is as such. Continue reading


June 28, 2008 Posted by | Class: E=MC2(+/-3db) | , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Design Principles: Part I (of many)

An insight into speaker selection.

People approach me all the time wanting advice before purchasing a new system. Whether it is a home theater, car audio system, two-channel stereo or a pro system for a church, club or other large public facility the same basic principles apply. As you can imagine this is not an easy question to answer. Before making any decisions we need to do a little fact gathering. Such as what will the system be used for and what Continue reading

March 16, 2008 Posted by | Class: E=MC2(+/-3db) | , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Paul W. Klipsch

Courtesy of: Klipsch Audio Technologies

Paul W. Klipsch (PWK) is one of America’s most celebrated audio pioneers because he revolutionized the way the world listens to recorded music. Unsatisfied with the sound quality of phonographs and early speaker systems, Mr. Klipsch used scientific principles to develop a corner horn speaker that sounded more lifelike than its predecessors.

The Klipschorn®, which today is still manufactured and sold worldwide, proved that it was possible to reproduce the sound of a live orchestra inside a home. The resulting Continue reading

March 5, 2008 Posted by | Pioneers in Audio | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Determining X-over Freq. of Passive X-over

How do you determine the crossover frequency of a speaker with a passive crossover if you do not have the manufacturers specifications?

To perform this test we will need a Pink Noise generator and a RTA. This will also require a little bit of manual labor on your part but it’s rather simple. I’m going to assume that this cabinet does not allow you to bi-amp it meaning that we have no external access to the two sections of the crossover. First disconnect the speaker from any power amplifiers then let’s get into the cabinet shall we. Every speaker is different when it comes to construction of the cabinet so the method of entry will vary depending on the make and model of your particular speaker. The majority of speakers are assembled using Continue reading

February 27, 2008 Posted by | FAQ's | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Setting up Crossovers

How do you determine where to set the crossover frequencies in a multi-cabinet system?

The obvious answer here is to refer to the manufacturers specifications. So we will assume these aren’t available. Where this gets tricky is when you’re dealing with cabinets that are bi-ampable and have a passive crossover as well. For now though let’s assume we’re dealing with a standard three way system consisting of a subwoofer, mid and high cabinets. Now to do this correctly would require far more explanation than I can provide here. So the method we will discuss will be nothing more than a means of finding a starting point to get your system up and running so that you can fine tune it properly. To do this you will need a tone generator with selectable frequency output and a RTA. The easiest way to do this Continue reading

February 27, 2008 Posted by | FAQ's | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Bi-Amped Speakers

Explain bi-ampable speakers.

A speaker that gives you the option to bi-amplify allows you to amplify the “high” and “low” section of the speaker separately. The signal still passes through the crossover filters but you are able to adjust the amplitude of the “high” and “low” sections independently. Essentially this gives you control of the mix between the “high” (tweeter) and “low” (woofer) output. To get more technical this also allows for further dynamic headroom in you amplifiers because they are producing a smaller portion of the over-all frequency range. Plus your amps now have doubled the amount of available current supplied to the speaker greatly enhancing what is known as the “damping factor” which is discussed in greater detail elsewhere in the site.

February 27, 2008 Posted by | FAQ's | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment